Curbing Down Infectious

Medicine Despite the efforts to curb down infectious diseases, there are still such diseases that affect millions of people in the US and worldwide. One such is viral hepatitis. Hepatitis is classified into 5 major types (A to E) but the most .mon are types A, B, and C. According to the CDC, hepatitis remains to be the number one cause of hepatic (liver) cancer, as well as the leading cause for requiring liver transplants. The CDC estimates that more than four million Americans are infected with chronic hepatitis. However, it is interesting to note that the acute incidences of hepatitis A, B, and C have sharply declined since 1980. Hepatitis A experienced peaks and troughs until around 1995 when US incidence sharply fell with an all-time low in 2008. Both the incidences of hepatitis B and C sharply fell around 1990 and been at their all-time low by 2008. New incidences of hepatitis have greatly decreased from around 450,000 new cases annually in the 1980s to about 80,000 new cases annually by the 1990s. This is attributed to the hepatitis vaccine administered to children and adolescents. As such, the importance of hepatitis vaccination among children cannot be stressed enough. Studies have shown that lifelong hepatitis infection is most prevalent among infants and children. It is expected that around one-fourth of these infected children will die of liver disease by adulthood. Other important vaccine-preventable infections are the pneumococcal diseases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), pneumococcal diseases have the highest kill rate among children under 5 years old among vaccine-preventable diseases. It is estimated that around one million children die annually due to pneumococcus infections that result in fatal pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. These are most prevalent in developing countries in South Asia and Africa, and is now of moderate to low concern in the US, Europe, and South America. Due to the high prevalence of death due to pneumococcus, the WHO re.mended in 2007 the inclusion of pneumococcal vaccines in immunization programs especially in developing countries. In the United States, around 63,000 children fell victim to invasive pneumococcal diseases prior to the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). More than 6,000 of these resulted into deaths. Those who survived suffered from the long-term .plications which included seizures and deafness. The CDC estimated that the pneumococcal vaccines reduced the incidence of pneumococcus infections by as much as 75% in the US. Likewise, the WHO estimates that as new pneumococcus vaccines are developed and administered, up to 80% of serious pneumococcal childhood infections can be prevented worldwide. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: